Vitamins (A, B, C, D, E) for the thyroid gland: what vitamins are good for thyroid?

vitamins for the thyroid gland

There is no doubt that a balanced diet that provides optimal levels of nutrients is important for maintaining thyroid health, and that nutrient deficiencies can lead to thyroid problems.

The thyroid gland is extremely important in your body. Every cell and tissue in your body depends on the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. When the thyroid gland is not working properly, it can affect every system in your body and can lead to disease.


Thyroid disease is a term for a medical condition that prevents the thyroid gland from producing the right amount of hormones, and if it produces too many hormones, your body uses up energy too quickly. This condition is called hyperthyroidism. Using energy too quickly will make your heart beat faster, lose weight even though you didn’t want to, and you may even feel nervous.

On the other hand, your thyroid gland may make too little thyroid hormone. This condition is called hypothyroidism. When you have too little thyroid hormone in your body, you may feel tired, and you may gain weight.

These two main disorders can be caused by various conditions, but they can also be inherited.


Thyroid diseases can affect anyone, can be present at birth and can develop with age. It is very common, and women are approximately five to eight times more likely to develop it than men.

You may be at greater risk of developing thyroid disease if you:

  • Have a family history of thyroid disease
  • You have any of the diseases, such as lupus, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, primary adrenal insufficiency, etc
  • You are over 60 years old
  • You have had cancer treatment (thyroidectomy or radiation)
  • Certain vitamins and minerals can help your thyroid function optimally

Ideally, most of them should come from food, but today’s busy life often leads to skipping meals, eating unhealthy, fast food, and this makes it difficult to get the vitamins and minerals our body needs.

However, high doses of some vitamins or minerals can be dangerous. For example, excessive intake of magnesium can cause diarrhea, zinc can cause nausea and vomiting, and selenium can cause nerve damage or gastrointestinal distress.

Some supplements may also interfere with the absorption of thyroid hormone replacement medications.


Thyroid vitamins that are essential for optimal function are vitamin A, B, C, D, and E.

Vitamin A for the thyroid gland

Vitamin A is an organic compound that plays an important role in the immune system, reproduction, and cellular communication. By modulating TSH levels, vitamin A can support the pituitary gland and prevent thyroid enlargement. In addition, vitamin A can reduce the risk of autoimmune processes such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.​​

The main sources of the vitamin are egg yolks, carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, chili peppers, spinach, lettuce, broccoli, tomatoes, apricots, peaches, cantaloupe, papaya, mango, etc.

Vitamin B12 for the thyroid gland

Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in many people with hypothyroidism and can contribute to anemia. People with hypothyroidism and anemia often have similar symptoms, such as fatigue and sluggishness. Vitamin B12 supplementation can improve symptoms of hypothyroidism by increasing the number of healthy red blood cells. These cells can deliver oxygen to all tissues and boost metabolism.

You can add more B vitamins to your diet with the following foods: peas, beans, asparagus, tuna, cheese, milk, eggs, etc.

Vitamin C for the thyroid gland

Research suggests that taking a vitamin C supplement may help reduce thyroid antibodies in people with Hashimoto’s disease. Vitamin C is vital for a healthy thyroid and body. This vitamin is required for collagen biosynthesis, protein metabolism and acts as an antioxidant to strengthen the immune system to prevent infections, colds and flu.

Also, vitamin C helps protect against cardiovascular disease, eye disease, prenatal health problems, and even skin wrinkles. Long-term vitamin C deficiency can cause the thyroid gland to secrete an excessive amount of hormones. One of the biggest benefits of vitamin C is that we can easily get the recommended daily value through our diet.

Kiwi, red and green peppers, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, strawberries, grapefruit, kiwi, pineapple, orange and lemon are rich in vitamin C.

Vitamin D for the thyroid gland

Vitamin D is best known for its function in bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. It helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus, which are necessary building materials for strengthening and rebuilding bones. People with hypothyroidism often have low levels of vitamin D, which can contribute to common symptoms, joint and muscle pain, and also contribute to leaky gut, which can be a precursor to autoimmune conditions such as Hashimoto’s. By increasing your vitamin D intake, your digestive system can start to recover.

The main source of vitamin D is sun exposure; when the skin absorbs ultraviolet rays, it triggers the production of vitamin D.

Very few foods are natural sources of vitamin D, and some of the better sources of vitamin D include: cod liver oil, salmon, tuna, orange juice, low-fat milk, yogurt, sardines, beef liver, eggs, and whole grains.

Vitamin E for the thyroid gland

Vitamin E is important for vision, reproduction and healthy blood, brain and skin. It also has antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are substances that can protect cells from the effects of free radicals, that is, molecules that are created when the body breaks down food or when, for example, it is exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation.

Some foods rich in vitamin E are: canola oil, olive oil, margarine, almonds and peanuts. You can also get it from meat, dairy products, leafy greens and fortified cereals.

Vitamin E acts cellularly on the thyroid gland, along with the adrenal glands and pituitary gland. Vitamin E also works closely with selenium, as both are important for proper conversion from T4 to T3. Vitamin E supplementation improves the symptoms of hypothyroidism with its antioxidant effects.

Many will need to supplement their diet not only with vitamins, but also with minerals and other nutrients to maintain overall health, including thyroid health.


Here are some of the most important minerals for thyroid health:

Iodine is crucial for thyroid function. The only known role of iodine is to support thyroid hormone production. Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones that contain iodine, and iodine deficiency causes thyroid disease. Foods rich in iodine are algae, blue fish and shellfish. In smaller amounts, we can also find it in eggs, cashews, dairy products and some legumes and vegetables.

Selenium – the thyroid gland contains large amounts of selenium, and a deficiency can lead to thyroid dysfunction. Selenium is a trace element that serves as a key antioxidant that protects the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. Its role is actually to regulate the immune system and to prevent damage to thyroid tissue. It is present in buckwheat, raisins, onions, garlic, animal products such as cheese and eggs, chicken, beef, and also in some types of fish such as tuna. Shellfish are also important sources of selenium.

Zinc is needed for the production of thyroid hormones. Optimal zinc concentration is required for healthy levels of T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Zinc supports the production of thyroid hormones and strengthens the immune system; it is a powerful catalyst for more than 100 enzymatic reactions in the body. Since our body has no way to store zinc, we must get it regularly through food or supplements. It is a mineral found in seafood, fish and shellfish. Other sources are protein-rich foods such as meat, egg yolks, liver, and plant-based foods such as algae, legumes, and soy.

Iron – The thyroid needs iron to convert T4 into T3, the active form of thyroid hormone. Iron deficiency is associated with thyroid dysfunction. Food sources rich in iron include meat (especially liver), chicken, fish, shellfish, oysters, legumes, spinach and green leafy vegetables

Magnesium – As one of the most abundant minerals in the human body and on earth, magnesium plays a key role in some of our vital functions, including blood pressure, muscle and nerve function, digestion, and even helps us sleep. Magnesium helps improve symptoms often associated with hypothyroidism, such as insomnia, fatigue, constipation, high blood pressure, and migraine headaches. Furthermore, magnesium plays an essential role in the conversion of T4 to T3, which can improve thyroid hormone function. Magnesium is found in bananas, cherries, blackberries, avocados, spinach, chard, beets, parsley, buckwheat, beans, almonds, walnuts (we recommend that you also read the text of walnuts for the thyroid gland), flax seeds, sesame seeds, fish, milk, and etc.